By Jai Prakash Singh, Yong Sheng Khoo, Jing Chai, Zhe Liu & Yan Wang, Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore
We are always hearing about champion cells demonstrating efficiencies of 24% or higher, yet only 20 or 21% can be obtained at the module level. This paper highlights the different loss mechanisms in a module, and how they can be quantified. Once it is known where photons and electrons are lost, it is possible to develop strategies to avoid this happening.
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